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» 2016年09月16日 12時00分 公開

FPGAソフトコアCPUにおける最適化を検証するMAX 10 FPGAで学ぶFPGA開発入門(14)(3/7 ページ)

[大原 雄介,ITmedia]
photo04 Photo04:これも連載ではおなじみ

 さて、次はソフトウェアの方である。まずEclipseを立ち上げ、従来と同様に“Nios II Application and BSP from Template”を選んで、アプリケーションを生成する。テンプレートは"Hello, World"、プロジェクト名は「NEEK_Dhry」とした。

 このプロジェクトのソースはこちら(List 2)である。やっていることは、Dhrystoneを内部で実行すると共に、1ms間隔でTimerを動かし、これで時間測定とついでにキー制御を行うというものだ。Dhrystoneは以前ご紹介した通り、今でも簡単にソースコードが入手できる。

 今回は簡単化のため、dhry.hのみ別ファイルとし、dhry_1.cとdhry_2.cの中身を全部まとめてしまった。

List 2:
#include "system.h"
#include "altera_avalon_pio_regs.h"
#include "sys/alt_alarm.h"
#include "alt_types.h"
#include "dhry.h"
 
// Definitions for NEEK_DhryBench
long	Ticks, startTick, finishTick;
 
long	HEXtable[11] = {0x40,	// 0:1000000
						0x79,	// 1:1111001
						0x24,	// 2:0100100
						0x30,	// 3:0110000
						0x19,	// 4:0011001
						0x12,	// 5:0010010
						0x02,	// 6:0000010
						0x78,	// 7:1111000
						0x00,	// 8:0000000
						0x10,	// 9:0010000
						0x3ff	// Blank:0000000
};
 
alt_u8	KeyFlag;	// 0:Stop 1:Start
#define	KEY_START	0x01
#define	KEY_STOP	0x02
 
// Definitions for Dhrystone
Rec_Pointer     Ptr_Glob,
                Next_Ptr_Glob;
int             Int_Glob;
Boolean         Bool_Glob;
char            Ch_1_Glob,
                Ch_2_Glob;
int             Arr_1_Glob [50];
int             Arr_2_Glob [50] [50];
 
Enumeration     Func_1 ();
  /* forward declaration necessary since Enumeration may not simply be int */
 
#ifndef REG
        Boolean Reg = false;
#define REG
        /* REG becomes defined as empty */
        /* i.e. no register variables   */
#else
        Boolean Reg = true;
#endif
 
#define	NUMBER_OF_RUNS		10000
 
void LEDR_out(int num)
{
	if((num < -1)||(num > 9))	return;
	if( num == -1 )
	{
		IOWR_ALTERA_AVALON_PIO_DATA(LEDR_BASE, 0);
	}
	else
	{
		IOWR_ALTERA_AVALON_PIO_DATA(LEDR_BASE, 1 << num);
 
	}
}
void HEX_out(int num)
{
 
	if((num < -1)||(num > 99))	return;
	if(num == -1)
	{
		IOWR_ALTERA_AVALON_PIO_DATA(HEX1_BASE, HEXtable[10]);
		IOWR_ALTERA_AVALON_PIO_DATA(HEX0_BASE, HEXtable[10]);
	}
	else
	{
		IOWR_ALTERA_AVALON_PIO_DATA(HEX1_BASE, HEXtable[(num/10)]);
		IOWR_ALTERA_AVALON_PIO_DATA(HEX0_BASE, HEXtable[(num%10)]);
	}
}
 
alt_u32	Alarm_Int(void* context)
{
	alt_u8 KeyStatus;
 
	Ticks++;
 
	// Examine Key Status
	KeyStatus = IORD_ALTERA_AVALON_PIO_DATA(KEY_BASE);
	if(( KeyStatus & KEY_START ) == 0 )
	{
		KeyFlag = 1;
	}
	else if (( KeyStatus & KEY_STOP ) == 0 )
	{
		KeyFlag = 0;
	}
	return	1;
}
 
void	dhry()
{
        One_Fifty       Int_1_Loc;
  REG   One_Fifty       Int_2_Loc;
        One_Fifty       Int_3_Loc;
  REG   char            Ch_Index;
        Enumeration     Enum_Loc;
        Str_30          Str_1_Loc;
        Str_30          Str_2_Loc;
  REG   int             Run_Index;
  REG   int             Number_Of_Runs;
 
  /* Initializations */
 
  Next_Ptr_Glob = (Rec_Pointer) malloc (sizeof (Rec_Type));
  Ptr_Glob = (Rec_Pointer) malloc (sizeof (Rec_Type));
 
  Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp                    = Next_Ptr_Glob;
  Ptr_Glob->Discr                       = Ident_1;
  Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp     = Ident_3;
  Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp      = 40;
  strcpy (Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Str_Comp,
          "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, SOME STRING");
  strcpy (Str_1_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 1'ST STRING");
 
  Arr_2_Glob [8][7] = 10;
        /* Was missing in published program. Without this statement,    */
        /* Arr_2_Glob [8][7] would have an undefined value.             */
        /* Warning: With 16-Bit processors and Number_Of_Runs > 32000,  */
        /* overflow may occur for this array element.                   */
 
    Number_Of_Runs = NUMBER_OF_RUNS;
  /***************/
  /* Start timer */
  /***************/
  startTick = Ticks;
  for (Run_Index = 1; Run_Index <= Number_Of_Runs; ++Run_Index)
  {
 
    Proc_5();
    Proc_4();
      /* Ch_1_Glob == 'A', Ch_2_Glob == 'B', Bool_Glob == true */
    Int_1_Loc = 2;
    Int_2_Loc = 3;
    strcpy (Str_2_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 2'ND STRING");
    Enum_Loc = Ident_2;
    Bool_Glob = ! Func_2 (Str_1_Loc, Str_2_Loc);
      /* Bool_Glob == 1 */
    while (Int_1_Loc < Int_2_Loc)  /* loop body executed once */
    {
      Int_3_Loc = 5 * Int_1_Loc - Int_2_Loc;
        /* Int_3_Loc == 7 */
      Proc_7 (Int_1_Loc, Int_2_Loc, &Int_3_Loc);
        /* Int_3_Loc == 7 */
      Int_1_Loc += 1;
    } /* while */
      /* Int_1_Loc == 3, Int_2_Loc == 3, Int_3_Loc == 7 */
    Proc_8 (Arr_1_Glob, Arr_2_Glob, Int_1_Loc, Int_3_Loc);
      /* Int_Glob == 5 */
    Proc_1 (Ptr_Glob);
    for (Ch_Index = 'A'; Ch_Index <= Ch_2_Glob; ++Ch_Index)
                             /* loop body executed twice */
    {
      if (Enum_Loc == Func_1 (Ch_Index, 'C'))
          /* then, not executed */
        {
        Proc_6 (Ident_1, &Enum_Loc);
        strcpy (Str_2_Loc, "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 3'RD STRING");
        Int_2_Loc = Run_Index;
        Int_Glob = Run_Index;
        }
    }
      /* Int_1_Loc == 3, Int_2_Loc == 3, Int_3_Loc == 7 */
    Int_2_Loc = Int_2_Loc * Int_1_Loc;
    Int_1_Loc = Int_2_Loc / Int_3_Loc;
    Int_2_Loc = 7 * (Int_2_Loc - Int_3_Loc) - Int_1_Loc;
      /* Int_1_Loc == 1, Int_2_Loc == 13, Int_3_Loc == 7 */
    Proc_2 (&Int_1_Loc);
      /* Int_1_Loc == 5 */
 
  } /* loop "for Run_Index" */
 
  /**************/
  /* Stop timer */
  /**************/
  finishTick = Ticks;
 
}
 
Proc_1 (Ptr_Val_Par)
/******************/
 
REG Rec_Pointer Ptr_Val_Par;
    /* executed once */
{
  REG Rec_Pointer Next_Record = Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp;
                                        /* == Ptr_Glob_Next */
  /* Local variable, initialized with Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp,    */
  /* corresponds to "rename" in Ada, "with" in Pascal           */
 
  structassign (*Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp, *Ptr_Glob);
  Ptr_Val_Par->variant.var_1.Int_Comp = 5;
  Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp
        = Ptr_Val_Par->variant.var_1.Int_Comp;
  Next_Record->Ptr_Comp = Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp;
  Proc_3 (&Next_Record->Ptr_Comp);
    /* Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp->Ptr_Comp
                        == Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp */
  if (Next_Record->Discr == Ident_1)
    /* then, executed */
  {
    Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp = 6;
    Proc_6 (Ptr_Val_Par->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp,
           &Next_Record->variant.var_1.Enum_Comp);
    Next_Record->Ptr_Comp = Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp;
    Proc_7 (Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp, 10,
           &Next_Record->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
  }
  else /* not executed */
    structassign (*Ptr_Val_Par, *Ptr_Val_Par->Ptr_Comp);
} /* Proc_1 */
 
 
Proc_2 (Int_Par_Ref)
/******************/
    /* executed once */
    /* *Int_Par_Ref == 1, becomes 4 */
 
One_Fifty   *Int_Par_Ref;
{
  One_Fifty  Int_Loc;
  Enumeration   Enum_Loc;
 
  Int_Loc = *Int_Par_Ref + 10;
  do /* executed once */
    if (Ch_1_Glob == 'A')
      /* then, executed */
    {
      Int_Loc -= 1;
      *Int_Par_Ref = Int_Loc - Int_Glob;
      Enum_Loc = Ident_1;
    } /* if */
  while (Enum_Loc != Ident_1); /* true */
} /* Proc_2 */
 
 
Proc_3 (Ptr_Ref_Par)
/******************/
    /* executed once */
    /* Ptr_Ref_Par becomes Ptr_Glob */
 
Rec_Pointer *Ptr_Ref_Par;
 
{
  if (Ptr_Glob != Null)
    /* then, executed */
    *Ptr_Ref_Par = Ptr_Glob->Ptr_Comp;
  Proc_7 (10, Int_Glob, &Ptr_Glob->variant.var_1.Int_Comp);
} /* Proc_3 */
 
 
Proc_4 () /* without parameters */
/*******/
    /* executed once */
{
  Boolean Bool_Loc;
 
  Bool_Loc = Ch_1_Glob == 'A';
  Bool_Glob = Bool_Loc | Bool_Glob;
  Ch_2_Glob = 'B';
} /* Proc_4 */
 
 
Proc_5 () /* without parameters */
/*******/
    /* executed once */
{
  Ch_1_Glob = 'A';
  Bool_Glob = false;
} /* Proc_5 */
 
 
        /* Procedure for the assignment of structures,          */
        /* if the C compiler doesn't support this feature       */
#ifdef  NOSTRUCTASSIGN
memcpy (d, s, l)
register char   *d;
register char   *s;
register int    l;
{
        while (l--) *d++ = *s++;
}
#endif
 
Proc_6 (Enum_Val_Par, Enum_Ref_Par)
/*********************************/
    /* executed once */
    /* Enum_Val_Par == Ident_3, Enum_Ref_Par becomes Ident_2 */
 
Enumeration  Enum_Val_Par;
Enumeration *Enum_Ref_Par;
{
  *Enum_Ref_Par = Enum_Val_Par;
  if (! Func_3 (Enum_Val_Par))
    /* then, not executed */
    *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_4;
  switch (Enum_Val_Par)
  {
    case Ident_1:
      *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_1;
      break;
    case Ident_2:
      if (Int_Glob > 100)
        /* then */
      *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_1;
      else *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_4;
      break;
    case Ident_3: /* executed */
      *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_2;
      break;
    case Ident_4: break;
    case Ident_5:
      *Enum_Ref_Par = Ident_3;
      break;
  } /* switch */
} /* Proc_6 */
 
 
Proc_7 (Int_1_Par_Val, Int_2_Par_Val, Int_Par_Ref)
/**********************************************/
    /* executed three times                                      */
    /* first call:      Int_1_Par_Val == 2, Int_2_Par_Val == 3,  */
    /*                  Int_Par_Ref becomes 7                    */
    /* second call:     Int_1_Par_Val == 10, Int_2_Par_Val == 5, */
    /*                  Int_Par_Ref becomes 17                   */
    /* third call:      Int_1_Par_Val == 6, Int_2_Par_Val == 10, */
    /*                  Int_Par_Ref becomes 18                   */
One_Fifty       Int_1_Par_Val;
One_Fifty       Int_2_Par_Val;
One_Fifty      *Int_Par_Ref;
{
  One_Fifty Int_Loc;
 
  Int_Loc = Int_1_Par_Val + 2;
  *Int_Par_Ref = Int_2_Par_Val + Int_Loc;
} /* Proc_7 */
 
 
Proc_8 (Arr_1_Par_Ref, Arr_2_Par_Ref, Int_1_Par_Val, Int_2_Par_Val)
/*********************************************************************/
    /* executed once      */
    /* Int_Par_Val_1 == 3 */
    /* Int_Par_Val_2 == 7 */
Arr_1_Dim       Arr_1_Par_Ref;
Arr_2_Dim       Arr_2_Par_Ref;
int             Int_1_Par_Val;
int             Int_2_Par_Val;
{
  REG One_Fifty Int_Index;
  REG One_Fifty Int_Loc;
 
  Int_Loc = Int_1_Par_Val + 5;
  Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc] = Int_2_Par_Val;
  Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc+1] = Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc];
  Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc+30] = Int_Loc;
  for (Int_Index = Int_Loc; Int_Index <= Int_Loc+1; ++Int_Index)
    Arr_2_Par_Ref [Int_Loc] [Int_Index] = Int_Loc;
  Arr_2_Par_Ref [Int_Loc] [Int_Loc-1] += 1;
  Arr_2_Par_Ref [Int_Loc+20] [Int_Loc] = Arr_1_Par_Ref [Int_Loc];
  Int_Glob = 5;
} /* Proc_8 */
 
 
Enumeration Func_1 (Ch_1_Par_Val, Ch_2_Par_Val)
/*************************************************/
    /* executed three times                                         */
    /* first call:      Ch_1_Par_Val == 'H', Ch_2_Par_Val == 'R'    */
    /* second call:     Ch_1_Par_Val == 'A', Ch_2_Par_Val == 'C'    */
    /* third call:      Ch_1_Par_Val == 'B', Ch_2_Par_Val == 'C'    */
 
Capital_Letter   Ch_1_Par_Val;
Capital_Letter   Ch_2_Par_Val;
{
  Capital_Letter        Ch_1_Loc;
  Capital_Letter        Ch_2_Loc;
 
  Ch_1_Loc = Ch_1_Par_Val;
  Ch_2_Loc = Ch_1_Loc;
  if (Ch_2_Loc != Ch_2_Par_Val)
    /* then, executed */
    return (Ident_1);
  else  /* not executed */
  {
    Ch_1_Glob = Ch_1_Loc;
    return (Ident_2);
   }
} /* Func_1 */
 
 
Boolean Func_2 (Str_1_Par_Ref, Str_2_Par_Ref)
/*************************************************/
    /* executed once */
    /* Str_1_Par_Ref == "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 1'ST STRING" */
    /* Str_2_Par_Ref == "DHRYSTONE PROGRAM, 2'ND STRING" */
 
Str_30  Str_1_Par_Ref;
Str_30  Str_2_Par_Ref;
{
  REG One_Thirty        Int_Loc;
      Capital_Letter    Ch_Loc;
 
  Int_Loc = 2;
  while (Int_Loc <= 2) /* loop body executed once */
    if (Func_1 (Str_1_Par_Ref[Int_Loc],
                Str_2_Par_Ref[Int_Loc+1]) == Ident_1)
      /* then, executed */
    {
      Ch_Loc = 'A';
      Int_Loc += 1;
    } /* if, while */
  if (Ch_Loc >= 'W' && Ch_Loc < 'Z')
    /* then, not executed */
    Int_Loc = 7;
  if (Ch_Loc == 'R')
    /* then, not executed */
    return (true);
  else /* executed */
  {
    if (strcmp (Str_1_Par_Ref, Str_2_Par_Ref) > 0)
      /* then, not executed */
    {
      Int_Loc += 7;
      Int_Glob = Int_Loc;
      return (true);
    }
    else /* executed */
      return (false);
  } /* if Ch_Loc */
} /* Func_2 */
 
 
Boolean Func_3 (Enum_Par_Val)
/***************************/
    /* executed once        */
    /* Enum_Par_Val == Ident_3 */
Enumeration Enum_Par_Val;
{
  Enumeration Enum_Loc;
 
  Enum_Loc = Enum_Par_Val;
  if (Enum_Loc == Ident_3)
    /* then, executed */
    return (true);
  else /* not executed */
    return (false);
} /* Func_3 */
 
 
int main()
{
	static alt_alarm	Alarm;
	alt_u8	FLAG;	// 0:Stop 1:Running
 
	// Initialize Display
	LEDR_out(-1);
	HEX_out(-1);
 
	// Initialize Key Status
	KeyFlag = 0;
	FLAG = 0;
 
	// Initialize Timer
	alt_alarm_start(&Alarm, 1, Alarm_Int, NULL);
 
	printf( "Start Program\n");
 
	while(1)
	{
		// Key status check
		switch( KeyFlag )
		{
		case 0:
			if ( FLAG != 0 )
			{
				LEDR_out(-1);
				HEX_out(-1);
				FLAG = 0;
			}
			break;
		case 1:
			if ( FLAG != 1 )
			{
				LEDR_out(0);
				FLAG = 1;
			}
		}
 
		// Run Dhrystone
		if( FLAG != 0 )
		{
			dhry();
			HEX_out((finishTick - startTick)/(NUMBER_OF_RUNS/100));
			printf( "Elapsed : %d ms\n", (finishTick - startTick));
		}
	}
	return 0;
}
List2

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